Journal Articles

Shafer M.S., Staples V., George L.S. (2016) Self-advocacy and empowerment in inpatient psychiatric settings: history, issues, & strategies. In: Singh N., Barber J., Van Sant S. (eds). Handbook of Recovery in Inpatient Psychiatry. Evidence-Based Practices in Behavioral Health (339-357), Springer, Cham

Prendergast, M. Welsh, W.N., Stein, L., Lehman, M.S., Melnick, G., Warda, U., Shafer, M.S., Ulaszek, W., Rodis, E., Abdel-Salam, A., Duvall, J. (2016). Influence of Organizational Characteristics on Success in Implementing Process Improvement Goals in Correctional Treament Settings. Journal of Behavorial Health Services and Research, 1-21.

Shafer, M.S. & Ashford, J.B. (2015). Forensic Social Workers in offender diversion. In M. Jensen & A.R. Roberts (Eds.), Social Workers’ Desk Reference (3rd edition), 1145-1151. New York: Oxford University Press.

Shafer, M.S. & Pfister, S. (2014). Arizona's Vulnerable Populations. In J. Koppell, D.B Daugherty, J. Garcia, & A. Whitsett (Eds). Health Care. Phoenix: Arizona Townhall, 30-37.

James, S., Rivera, R., Shafer, M.S. (2014). Effects of Peer Recovery Coaches on Substance Abuse Treatment Engagement among Child Welfare-Involved Parents. Journal of Family Strengths, 14:1.

Lindsey, A. & Gacic, K. (2014). Push me, pull me: Strategies to ease the client-therapist wrestling match. In Langer, C.L. & Lietz, C.A., Applying theory to generalist social work practice, (292-293). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Melton, A., Cobb, K., Lindsey, A., & Colgan, B. (2014, September). Addressing responsivity issues with criminal justice involved Native Americans. Federal Probation, in Special Issue: The Responsivity Principle in Community Corrections, 24-31.

Litwicki, T. & White, W.L. (2014).  A conceptual review of the integration of professional practices within mutual aid organizations.  Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 9:3, 237-256.

Pearson, F.S., Shafer, M.S., Dembo, R., Vega-Debién, G., Pankow, J., Duvall, D.L., Belenko, S., Frisman, L.K., Visher, C.A., Pich, M., & Patterson, Y. (2014).   Efficacy of a Process Improvement Intervention on Delivery of HIV Services to Offenders: A Multisite Trial.  American Journal of Public Health, 104:12, 2385-2391, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302035. 

Shafer, M.S., Prendergast, M., Melnick, G., Stein, L.A., Welsh, W.N. & CJDATS Assessment Workgroup (2014). A cluster randomized trial of an organizational process improvement intervention for improving the assessment and case planning of offenders: A study protocol. Health & Justice, 2(1), doi:10.1186/2194-7899.

Welsh, W.N., Knudsen, H.K., Knight, K., Ducharme, L., Pankow, J., Urbine, T., Lindsey, A., Abdel-Salam, S., Wood, J., Monico, L., Link, N., Albizu-Garcia, C., Friedmann, P.D. (2016). Effects of an organizational linkage intervention on inter-organizational service coordination between probation/parole agencies and community treatment providers. Administration and Policy in Mental Health43(1):105-21. doi: 10.1007/s10488-014-0623-8.

Linton, K.F., & Shafer, M.S. (2013). Factors associated with the health service utilization of unsheltered, chronically homeless adults. Social Work in Public Health, 29(1), 73-80.

Fox, A.M., Mulvey, P., Katz, C.M. & Shafer, M.S. (2013) Untangling the relationship between mental health and homelessness among a sample of arrestees.  Crime & Delinquency, doi: 10.1177/0011128713511571. 

Malvini Redden, S., Tracy, S.J., & Shafer, M.S. (2013). A metaphor analysis of recovering substance abusers' sensemaking of medication-assisted treatment. Qualitative Health Research23(7), 951-962, doi: 10.1177/1049732313487802. Epub 2013 May 6.

Bean, K.F., Shafer, M.S., & Glennon, M. (2013). The impact of housing first and peer support on people who are medically vulnerable and homeless. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 36(1), 48-50.

Hodge, D.R., Moser, S.E., &  Shafer, M.S. (2012). Spirituality and mental health among homeless mothersSocial Work Research, 36(4): 245-255.

Carlson, B.E.Williams, L.R., & Shafer, M.S. (2012). Methamphetamine-involved parents in the child welfare system: are they more challenging than other substance-involved parents? Journal of Public Child Welfare, 6(3), 280-295.

Friedmann, P.D., Hoskinson, R., Gordon, M., Schwarz, R., Kinlock, T., Knight, K., Flynn, P., Welsh, W.N., Stein, L.A., Sacks, S., O'Connell, D., Knudsen, H., Shafer, M.S., Hall, E., & Frisman, L.K. (2012). Medication assisted treatment in criminal justice-drug abuse treatment studies (CJ-DATS): availability, barriers, intentions. Substance Abuse, 33, 9-18.

Menegatos, L. (2011). Why dental practitioners need to understand substance use and abuseJournal of the Arizona Dental Association - INSCRIPTIONS, 25 (13), 42-43.

Carlson, B.E. & Shafer, M.S. (2010). Traumatic histories and stressful life events of incarcerated parents I: childhood and adult traumatic histories. The Prison Journal, 90(4), 475-493.

Carlson, B.E., Shafer, M.S., & Duffee, D. (2010). Traumatic histories and stressful life events of incarcerated parents II: gender and ethnic differences in substance abuse and service needs. The Prison Journal, 90(4), 494-515.

Cook, J.A., Lehman, A.F., Drake, R.E., McFarlane, W.R., Gold, P.B., Leff, H.S., Blyler, C.R., Toprac, M.G., Razzano, L.A., Burke-Miller, J.K., Blankertz, L.E., Shafer, M.S., Pickett-Schenk, S.A., & Grey, D. D. (2005). Integration of psychiatric and vocational services: A multi-site randomized, controlled trial of supported employment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(10), 1948-1956.

Cook, J.A., Leff, H.S., Blyler, C. R., Gold, P.B., Goldberg, R.W., Gold, P.,  Mueser, K.T., Toprac, M.G., McFarlane, W.R., Shafer, M.S., Blankertz, L.F., Dudek, K., Razzano L.A., Grey, D.D., & Burke-Miller, J. (2005). Results of a multisite randomized trial of supported employment interventions for individuals with severe mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 505–512.

Shafer, M.S.Arthur, B., & Franczak, M. (2004). An analysis of post-booking jail diversion programming for persons with co-occurring disorders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22(6), 771-785.

Shafer, M.S.Rhode, R., & Chong, J. (2004). Utilizing distance education to promote the transfer of motivational interviewing skills among behavioral health professionals. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 26(2), 141-148.

Watson, D.W., Rawson, R.R., Shafer, M.S., Rataemane, S., Obert, J., Bisesi, L., & Tanamly, S. (2003). A distance education model for training substance abuse treatment providers. Journal of Teaching on Addictions, 2(2), 45-58. 

Lattimore, P. K., Broner, N., Sherman, R., Frisman, L., & Shafer, M.S. (2003).  A comparison of pre-booking and post-booking diversion programs for mentally ill substance using individuals with justice involvement. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice Issues, 19(1), 30-64.

Unger, K.V., Pardee, R., & Shafer, M.S. (2000).  Outcomes of post secondary supported education for people with psychiatric disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 14(3), 195-199.

Shafer, M.S., Pardee, R., & Stewart, M. (1999).  An assessment of the training needs of rehabilitation and community mental health workers in a six-state region.  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 23(2), 161-169. 

Shafer, M.S. & Huang, H. (1995).  Evaluating psychiatric vocational rehabilitation services: A Community Rehabilitation Information system. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 18(4), 65-72.

Shafer, M.S. & Huang, H. (1995). The utilization of survival analysis to evaluate supported employment services. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 5, 103-113.

Shafer, M.S. & Rangasamy, R. (1994). Transition of Native American Youth: A follow-up study of school-leavers on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Journal of Rehabilitation.

Park, H., Shafer, M.S., & Drake, L. (1993).  Factors related to the working environment of employment specialists.  Journal of Rehabilitation, 38-43.

Quiroga, T. & Shafer, M.S. (1993).  Perspectives on transition: A comparative analysis among Hispanic youth. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 3(1), 54-60.

Downing, J., Shafer, M.S., Brahm-Levy, A, & Frantz, M. (1992).  Supported employment for individuals with dual sensory impairments and mental retardation. Current practices and future challenges.  Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 2(1), 28-38.

Shafer, M.S., Banks, P. D., & Kregel, J. (1991).  Employment retention and career movement among individuals with mental retardation working in supported employment.  Mental Retardation, 29(2), 103-110.

Shafer, M.S., Revell, W. G., Kregel, J., Wehman, P., & West, M. (1991). Systems change efforts and supported employment.  National strategies and outcomes.  Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 2(1), 56-70.

Shafer, M.S., Revell, W.G. & Isbister, F. (1991).  The national supported employment initiative: A three year longitudinal analysis. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation. 1(1), 9-17.

Shafer, M.S., Wehman, P., Kregel, J.S., & West, M. (1990).  The national supported employment initiative:  A preliminary analysis of 27 states.  American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95(3), 316-327.

Szymanski, E.M., Shafer, M.S., Danek, M.M., & Schiro-Geist, C. (1990).  Supported employment in rehabilitation education. Rehabilitation Education, 4, 261-276.

Shafer, M.S. (1990). Using coworkers to supplement job placement efforts.  Journal of Job Placement, 6(1), 22-28.

Shafer, M.S. (1989). The implementation of supported employment:  A national status report.  Avant Garde, 3 (4), 1-6.

Kregel, J.K., Shafer, M.S., Wehman, P.H., & West. (1989).  Policy development and program expenditures in supported employment:  Current strategies to promote statewide systems change.  Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14(4), 283-292.

Shafer, M.S., Metzler, H.M.D., Killam, S., & Hughes, T.  (1989).  An assessment of state agency rehabilitation counselors’ knowledge and utilization of supported employment.  Rehabilitation Education, 3, 201-209.

Shafer, M.S., Rice, M. L., Metzler, H.M.D., & Haring, M. (1989).  A survey of nondisabled employees' attitudes toward supported employees who are mentally retarded.  Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 14(2), 137-146.

Shafer, M.S., Tait, K., Keen, R., & Jesiolowski, C. (1989). Supported competitive employment:  Using coworkers to assist follow-along efforts.  Journal of Rehabilitation, 55(2), 68-75.

Shafer, M.S., Kregel, J. Banks, P.D., & Hill, M. (1988).  An analysis of employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 9, 377-391.

Inge, K. J., Banks, P. D., Wehman, P., Hill, J. W., & Shafer, M. S., (1988).  Quality of life for individuals who are labeled mentally retarded:  Evaluating competitive employment versus sheltered workshop employment.  Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 23(2), 97-104.

Shafer, M.S., Hill, J. W., Seyfarth, J., & Wehman, P. H. (1987) Competitive employment and workers with mental retardation:  Analysis of employer's experiences. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 92(3), 304-311.

Shafer, M.S., (1987). Supported competitive employment: The use of self-management programming in the follow-along process. Journal of Rehabilitation, 53(3), 31-36.

Hill, M.L., Banks, P.D., Handrich, R.R., Wehman, P.H., Hill, J.W., & Shafer, M.S. (1987).  Benefit-cost analysis of supported competitive employment for persons with mental retardation.  Research in Development Disabilities, 8, 71-89.

Shafer, M.S., Inge, K., & Hill, J. (1986).  Acquisition, generalization and maintenance of automated banking skills.  Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 21(4), 265-272.

Shafer, M.S., Brooke, V., & Wehman, P. (1986).  Developing appropriate social-interpersonal skills in a mentally retarded worker. Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Bulletin, 18(2), 76-81.

Shafer, M.S., Egel, A.L., & Neef, N.A. (1984).  Training mildly handicapped peers to facilitate changes in the social interaction skills of autistic children.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 461-476.

Egel, A.L., Shafer, M.S., & Neef, N.A. (1984).  Receptive acquisition and generalization of prepositions in autistic children:  "Active" vs. "Passive" training. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 4, 285-298.

Neef, N.A., Shafer, M.S., Egel, A.L., Cataldo, M.F., & Parrish, J.M. (1983).  The class specific effects of compliance training with "do" and "don't" requests:  Analog analysis and classroom application with autistic children.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 81-99.

Books & monographs 

Carle, N. (2011). Wolf Wolfensberger: the definitive agent of change. Community Living, 24 (4), 22-23.

Shafer, M.S., Middaugh, A., Rubin, M. & Jones, R. (1995).  Best practices in the vocational rehabilitation of persons with serious mental illness.  Tucson:  Community Rehabilitation Division, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center.

Kregel, J., Wehman, P. H., & Shafer, M.S. (1990).  Competitive employment for persons with severe disabilities: from research to practice, Volume III. Richmond: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Wehman, P.H., Kregel, J., & Shafer, M.S. (1989). Emerging trends in the national supported employment initiative: A preliminary analysis of twenty-seven states. Richmond: Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Wehman, P.H., Kregel, J., Shafer, M.S., & Hill, M.L. (1987).  Competitive employment for persons with mental retardation: from research to practice, Volume II. Richmond:  Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Virginia Commonwealth University.


Shafer, M.S. & Ashford, J.B. (2008). Roles and functions of social workers in offender diversionary processes. In M. Jensen, A.R. Roberts, & J.B. Ashford (eds.), Social Workers’ Desk Reference (2nd edition), New York: Oxford University Press.

Franczak, M. & Shafer, M.S. (2002). Jail diversion in a managed care environment: The Arizona experience. In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, L. Berg, & A. Smiley (Eds.). Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for mental health professionals. New York: Springer Publishing, 107-119.

Shafer, M. S. (1989).  An introduction to supported employment.  In P. Wehman & J. Kregel (Eds.), Supported employment for persons with disabilities: Focus on excellence.  New York: Human Sciences Press.

Shafer, M.S., Larus Rice, M., Metzler, H. M. D. (l989).  Integration in the workplace: Perceptions and experiences of employees without disabilities. In P. Wehman & J. Kregel (Eds.), Supported employment and employment for persons with disabilities: Focus on excellence. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Shafer, M.S., & Nisbet, J. (1988).  Integration and empowerment in the workplace.  In M. Barcus, S. Griffin, D. Mank, L. Rhodes, & S. Moon (Eds.), Supported employment implementation issues.  Richmond:  Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Virginia Commonwealth University.

Shafer, M.S., Parent, W., & Everson, J. (1988).  Responsive marketing by supported employment developers.  In P. Wehman & S. Moon (Eds.), Vocational rehabilitation and supported employment.  Baltimore:  Brookes Publishing.

Shafer, M.S. (1988).  Supported employment in perspective:  Traditions in the federal-state vocational rehabilitation system.  In P. Wehman & S. Moon (Eds.), Vocational rehabilitation and supported employment.  Baltimore:  Brookes Publishing.

Shafer, M.S. (1986).  Utilizing co-workers as change agents.  In F. R. Rusch (Ed.), Competitive employment:  Issues and strategies.  Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Shafer, M.S. (1986).  Competitive employment for workers with mental retardation. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification.  New York:  Academic Press.